Materials surface modification, including polymers, films, fibers, and particles, have been significantly considered by lots of researchers. Surface modification methods have gained importance and accounted for more than half of the global scientific production dealing with polymers and polymer modifications. Surfaces of materials are frequently treated with functional groups to improve barrier properties, wettability, sealability, printability, dye sorption, anti-glazing properties, adhesion to other materials, or interaction with a biological environment while maintaining the material’s desirable bulk properties. These surface-treated materials are used widely in microfluidics, textiles, biomedical applications, electronics, water treatment, and energy industries.
For instance, surface-treated polymers are employed to reduce membrane fouling in water-harvesting and filtration systems. Polymers with higher hydrophilicity can be used in oil-water separation and as an antifouling medium in oil and gas filtration units. To regulate doping, air-stable p–n–p graphene junctions were made in electronics using polymers containing aliphatic amine groups. For assessing barrier performance in OPVs, P3HT thin films were surface treated with plasma for surface cleaning and improved graphene adherence. Surface treatment of polymers is important in biomedical applications because it allows for targeted synchronized medication release and improved biocompatibility without impairing the polymer’s bulk properties.