Nanofibers are defined as fibers with diameters on the order of ~100 nm. Nanofibers have attracted lots of interest from both academia and industry, and it is one of the greatest intriguing materials for modern industry. The ever-growing library of nanofibrous structures with variable sizes, shapes, and compositions has opened up great opportunities for the design of functional materials. Some of the unique advantages of nanofibers are high surface area, flexibility in surface functionality, and highly porous membranes with excellent interconnectivity that create enhancements and bring promising solutions for fundamental problems in our life in various fields such as biomedical, energy harvest and storage, electronics (supercapacitors and nanosensors), healthcare and cosmetics, protective clothing, environmental protection, and filtration.
Researchers have turned to develop several nanofiber fabrication techniques such as electrospinning, melt-blowing, forcespinning, etc.. However, the electrospinning is the most versatile technique to produce nanofibers due to the unique capabilities used to produce nanofibers from different materials (polymers, ceramics, and metals) with different morphologies, patterns, and functionalities.